Immigration to the Americas


Prior to 1650, many Englishmen immigrated to the New World, 
specifically to the North American Colonies. These immigrants fled 
from a society that they found to be displeasing in many specific 
ways. Although economic and political values led to much of the 
English migration to the New World, religious tumult in England was 
undoubtedly the main cause for the immigration.

 James I, who believed in the divine right of kings, thought he 
was allowed to disobey Parliament because he answered to no one but 
God. He started a conflict with Parliament that gained momentum under 
Charles I's reign. This conflict finally sparked a civil war lasting 
seven years, during which time the government unsympathetically 
persecuted its citizens, driving many of them out of the country. 

 Furthermore, England's unstable economy and inflation led to 
much poverty. The demand for a certain raw material like wool could 
put many slaves out of a job if the landowner suddenly decided it was 
more profitable to raise sheep; thus requiring only a small fraction 
of the work force. Inflation also made life hard for the poorer 
people, who found they could no longer pay for basic necessities. 
People saw that moving to the North American Colonies was a great 
money-making opportunity. Growing sugar on islands off the North 
American coast was so profitable that one man's capital may have 
spilled over to a relative who lived generations later. People were 
also quite excited about the idea of Capitalism, the economic system 
in which one makes even more money by investing his capital in a 
growing business, for example. Finally, people saw that the vast 
fields in the New World would yield much produce, and that moving to 
the Colonies was an opportunity too good to pass up.

 Religious conflict, however, was the main factor contributing 
to the English migration to New England. The Catholic Church had 
become too intense on individuals and their everyday life, and 
Protestantism seemed to be the best alternative for many people. Also, 
King Henry VIII had established the Anglican Church, which he strongly 
enforced upon the Englishmen. Protestants and Catholics in this 
society were shunned by their neighbors, fined by the government, and 
even sent to jail. The English nation was in a state of religious 
turmoil with no religion to unify its citizens. 

 In addition, Religious warfare had become extremely gory, and 
the amount of bloodshed was immense, simply because of each side's 
belief that any killing of the enemy was good since God was on their 
side. People did not know where to turn, and began looking toward the 
North American Colonies. 

 Certain Protestants, however, took the Reformation a step 
further and tried to simplify or "purify" the Anglican Church, since
they believed that even Anglicanism was not as much a reform from 
Catholicism as they wanted. These Protestants were called Puritans, 
and they believed that they did not need priests, Anglicanism, or its 
Church, but that they, alone, could talk to God. Such a feeling was 
common to all the Protestants, so they decided that they would attempt 
to create a Protestant nation in North America. Since they knew that 
changing the ways and customs of an existing society would be far too 
difficult, they left England and headed straight toward the New World. 

 Some of the Puritans even believed in typology; that their 
life was a repetition of the Bible, and that they were compared to the
ancient Hebrews, who fled from Egypt only to wander in the desert for 
forty years before entering the promised land. They believed that 
while they temporarily settled in the Colonies, England would be 
destroyed, and that they, the "saving remnants", as they called 
themselves, would later return and resettle it as the promised land. 
After a couple of generations with no word of Europe's long awaited 
destruction, though, the colonists decided that they would create a 
permanent settlement in the New World, since perhaps this was the 
promised land.

 Many people from England fled to the New World during the late 
1500s and early 1600s. Their country was in a state of economic, 
political, and religious tumult, and they saw great potential in the 
New World. They were displeased with the Catholic Church and all of 
England, so they came to the Colonies to start anew, and create what 
was, in their eyes, the perfect society.


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