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The Jfk Assassination


Conspiracy or Single-Gunman?
Adolf Hitler, the Nazi dictator of Germany during World War
II, once said, "The bigger the
lie, the more people will believe it." Although this may
sound ludicrous, we can see many
example of this in the world's history. One example would
have to be the John Fitzgerald
Kennedy assassination. For over thirty years the people of
the United States were led to
believe that a single gunman shot and killed Kennedy in
Dallas on November 22, 1963, at
12:30 p.m... However, in this paper, I will dispute the
ancient analization of the facts
that show a single gunman was involved, and try to show
that a conspiracy must have been
According to the old facts regarding the case of the JFK
assassination, Kennedy was killed
by a single gunman. On November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. CST
(Central Standard Time),
Kennedy was riding in an open limousine through Dallas,
Texas. At this time, Kennedy was
shot in the head and neck by a sniper. He was then taken to
Parkland Memorial Hospital,
where he was pronounced dead. Later, police arrested Lee
Harvey Oswald, a former U.S.
Marine, at a nearby theater. By the next morning, Oswald
was booked for the murder of
President John F. Kennedy. Two days later, Oswald was
killed by Jack Ruby, a Dallas
nightclub owner, while he was being moved from the city to
the county jail.
At a glance, the above story sounds as if this should be an
open-and-shut case. After all,
according to the facts above, Oswald must have killed
Kennedy. However, you must take a
deeper look into this case. Many people who witnessed the
murder of John F. Kennedy
dispute the facts above, saying that they heard shots from
places besides the book
depository, and other things that may contradict what is
stated above. One of these 
Marino, 2
witnesses, Abraham Zapruder, captured the entire
assassination on his Bell and Howell eight
millimeter movie camera. This movie, cleverly called the
Zapruder Film, is the single best
piece of visual evidence in this case. 
In order to more clearly understand the Zapruder Film, it
is necessary to break it down
into frames. The particular Bell and Howell movie camera
that Zapruder was using ran at
eighteen and three-hundredths (18.3) frames per second.
When using this frame system, you
must remember that all shots were actually fired several
frames before the number that is
assigned to them. For example, the fatal heard wound,
called Z313, was probably fired at
Z310, since it took 2-3 frames at 18.3 frames per second
for the bullet to reach the
victim. Also, you must remember that sound travels at about
one thousand-one hundred
(1,100) feet per second, or a little over half as fast as
the Mannlicher Carcano's bullets.
When keeping this in mind, it is expected that witnesses
heard the shot at some point
after the bullet passed. The following shows a break down
of the frames of the Zapruder
- The Presidential limousine first comes into view at frame
133 (the starting point of this
timeline.) - The first shot at (or just before) Z187 would
have passed through both
Governor Connally and the President.
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- The second shot, which passed above the limousine at
Z284, missed the President and hit
the curb near witness James Tague. This caused his minor
- At Z313, the fatal shot occurs, which blew out major
portions of the Presidents brain and
- A fourth shot occurred at Z323 (slightly 1/2 second after
the fatal wound at Z313). Due
to the proximity of this report to the one at Z313, as well
as it's more distant origin,
most witnesses were unable to hear this shot.
Thus, the above is when the bullets hit either Kennedy or
Connally, or passed through the
frames of the Zapruder film (in the case of the second
Of the one-hundred seventy-eight (178) witnesses at Dealey
Plaza, one-hundred thirty-two
(132) said that they hear exactly three shots. If Oswald
was a single gunman, it would
have taken him at least 2.3 seconds to reload his
Mannlicher Carcano rifle. 

However, the general consensus of the witnesses is that
they heard a single shot, followed
by silence, with the second and third shots bunched
together. For example, Lee Bowers, one
of the witnesses, testified, "I heard three shots, one,
then a slight pause, then two very 

Marino, 4
close together." Also, Warren W. Taylor, a Secret Service
agent, said, "As a matter of
course, I opened the door and prepared to get out of the
car. In the instant that my left
foot touched the ground, I heard two more bangs and
realized that they must be gun shots." 

Lastly, when Miss Willis, a witness, was asked if she heard
any shots, she testified, "Yes;
I heard one. Then there was a little bit of time, and then
there were two real fast bullets
together. When the first one hit, well, the President
turned from waving to the people, and
he grabbed his throat, and he kind of slumped forward, and
then I couldn't tell where the
second shot went." Thus, it would have been impossible for
one gunman to fire a shot with
the Mannlicher Carcano rifle, reload, fire again, and fire
again in a very short amount of
time in order to make the shots sound close together. Also,
when the fatal shot hit
Kennedy, his head went back and to the left, implying that
the bullet came from the front
and right, not from th
Although many people dispute the single bullet theory, this
may be true. To understand
why, you must understand the trajectory of the bullet and
the angles involved. The bullet,
if fired from the Texas School Book Depository, should have
hit Kennedy at a 21 degree
angle, and, in fact, it did. (See the pictures on the
subsequent pages.) Also, President
Kennedy was sitting nearly six inches above the level of
Connally's seat. Thus, when the
bullet left the President, it hit Connally, who was turned
15-20 degrees. When the bullet
hit Connally, the hole in his back was 5/8 inches wide by
1/4 inches high, or more than
twice as wide as tall. This means that the bullet was
partially turned sideways when it
entered Connally's back. Thus, the bullet must have hit
something before it hit 

Connally. Also, the bottom of the bullet that was found was
broken open and was extruding
tiny particles of lead. X-rays taken at Parkland showed
precisely that type of particle
embedded in the Governor's wrist and thigh wounds. However,
even if the single bullet
theory is true, it in no way lessens the fact that there
were multiple gunmen, and 

Marino, 5
there was a conspiracy. (The "magic bullet" is thought to
be bullet one on the Zapruder
Lastly, one has to consider what the biggest motives would
be to kill the President. One
motive has to deal with President Kennedy trying to get out
of Vietnam. This war was the
biggest business in America at the time. It brought in over
eighty billion dollars a year.
Thus, since the President was trying to get out of the war,
he would have been costing
business men a lot of money. Also, vice-president Johnson
would have profited a lot
because he was the next to become president. Thus, people,
including the vice-president,
had motives to kill the President.
As you can see, the killing of John F. Kennedy was a
conspiracy. There is no way a single
gunman could have fired all the bullets that hit Kennedy
and Connnally in that short period
of time. Also, since Kennedy's head went back and to the
left, the bullet must have been
fired from the front and right of Kennedy. This shows that
there was another gunman, which
makes this a conspiracy. Someday, it would be nice if the
truth is revealed about who
fired the bullets, and how many gunmen there actually were.
1. Harris, Robert. "The Assassination of President John F.
Kennedy: A Reassessment of
Original Testimony and Evidence." 
2. Harris, Robert. "The Single Bullet Theory: A Question of
3. Newman, John. "Oswald and the CIA." Carroll and Graf
Publishers, Inc. New York: 1995.
4. Summers, Anthony. "Conspiracy." McGraw-Hill Book
Company. New York: 1981.
5. "JFK" Directed by Oliver Stone. Warner Bros., Inc. 1991.
From the courtroom scene in Oliver Stone's JFK.
From "The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy: A
Reassessment of Original Testimony
and Evidence," at http://www.thuntek.net/~rharris/1.html
From, "The Assassination of
President John F. Kennedy: A Reassessment of Original
Testimony and Evidence," at
http://www.thuntek.net/~rharris/1.html. From, "The
Assassination of President John F.
Kennedy: A Reassessment of Original Testimony and
Evidence," at


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