Rome peaked between 27 B.C. and 180 A.D. This time was called Pax Romana, which means Roman Peace. The government was able to control all of Rome. It did not matter if the emperor was weak or incompetent, for the government was able to hold the empire together under such dictators. Government officials also received salaries as well as respect, so those with great ability, though lacking in wealth, could afford to become an official. During this time provincial governors lost power and were less corrupt. Any citizen could appeal to the emperor over one of the governor's rulings. Spain and Gaul benefited greatly and built small replicas of Rome. There were no direct taxes, and the wealthy took so much pride in their cities that they often gave money to the city's government so it could build things for the public, such as public buildings, streets, schools and entertainment. Roman law also expanded and the concept of "innocent until proven guilty" was introduced. New laws were passed, and judges interpreted old ones so they would fit in more than they had originally. American judges do the same today. Rome also built a great army. This army guarded Rome from outside attacks. The army was mostly made up of citizens who would serve for 20 years. Non-citizens were able to enlist for 25 years, and at the end of their service, they were given citizenship. Since much land was worn out by farming in southern Italy and Greece trade was encouraged. Roads were built and a postal service was established. Instead of slaves, colonus', or tenant farmers, grew crops. It was often cheaper for a landowner to free a slave and then make him a colonus, for then the land owner did not have to feed or clothe the person anymore. There was also trade from China and India for glass, spices. silk, and other luxuries. The living conditions during Pax Romana for the majority, who were poor, were deplorable. The lived in wooden apartments, which were liable to collapse or catch on fire. The rich citizen, on the other hand, had two houses and a good life. Romans science was unremarkable compared to our own. Their architecture, on the other hand, was quite amazing. The rich had running water, and there were sewer systems. They also made use of the arch and the dome. Roman education was not public, like ours, but private. Education cost money, as was common in cultures before modern times. It was divided into an elementary school, a secondary school, and a college level school. What you could major in depended on your location. Though advanced for that point in time, Romans were not without their barbaric side. Often for entertainment they would set animals against gladiators or even gladiators against other gladiators for amusement. The crowd would decide whether a gladiator should live or die. Romans also enjoyed plays as the Greeks did, and had playwrights of its own. In all, the Roman culture set the basis for many western concepts, and was the most powerful empire of its time.