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"Books, like proverbs, receive their chief value from the stamp and
esteem of ages through which they have passed." (Temple, Sir William).
Bram Stoker's Dracula is a literary classic, which has stood the test
of time. Dracula, written in 1897, makes reference to mythical
creatures, which in the 20th century have substantial scientific merit.
In the increasingly publicized culture of modern society, the reader,
who desires to live vicariously through vampires, can experience an
emotional release in the study of Dracula. This same modern day reader
finds a sense of comfort in the rigid definition of gender roles in the
novel, because of the disintegration of sexual barriers in modern
civilization. Dracula is a novel, which is more relevant and appealing
to modern readers then it ever was to readers of the past, who could
not fully appreciate it because of the way in which society has
evolved. At the time of Dracula's conception, the notion of vampires
and werewolves was based purely on superstition and speculation.
Through the character of Abraham Van Helsing the reader is informed of
the characteristics of the vampire.
 The vampire live on, and cannot die by mere passing of time; he
 can flourish when that he can fatten on the blood of the
living. Even more, we have seen amongst us that he can even grow
younger; that his vital faculties grow s tenuous, and seem as though
they refresh themselves when his special pabulum is plenty. (pg.252)
This type of creature in the 19th century was thought of by many
scientific minds as ludicrous. Van Helsing struggles when he tries to
convince the other men of the existence of vampires. "A year ago which
of us would have received such a possibility, in the midst of our
scientific, skeptical, matter-of-fact nineteenth century?" (pg252) It
was not until late in the 20th century that the conditions of Porhyria
and Haemotomania were proven. Both diseases inflict a lust for blood in
those affected. Since doctors knew very little about the internal
systems of the human body they would have assumed that a creature like
this was superstitious paranoia. Another condition that also was
unheard of, is that of Lycanthropy, a condition that is characterized
by the belief that one is half man, half wolf.
 He has the strength of many in his hand-witness again
 Jonathon when he
shut the door against the wolfs, and when he help him from the
diligence too. He can transform himself to wolf, as we gather from the
ship arrival in Whitby, when he tear open the dog. (pg.253) Although
intended to be fictional, the novel comprises facts, which a reader in
the 20th century finds appealing. The reader is challenged by the
realization that although the novel is connected with horrific
monsters, scientific evidence gives credence to their existence. This
frightening realization makes the novel even more powerful. Stoker's
probable intention for the inclusion of such creatures, is to fulfill
the wish of 19th century society to express the darker, more
destructive side of their humanity.
 Readers of Dracula experience an emotional release as they
 allow the vampires to fulfill their need for dark cravings and
 thoughts, especially in a modern society increasingly unable to
 obtain privacy. Once Lucy transforms into a vampire she
 represents all that is considered forbidden and unclean by both
 19th and 20th century societies. With a careless motion, she
flung to the ground, callous as a devil, the child that up to now she
had clutched strenuously to her breast, growling over it as a dog
growls over a bone. The child gave a sharp cry, and lay there moaning.
There was a cold-bloodedness in the act which wrung a groan from
Arthur; when she advanced to him with outstretched arms and a wanton
smile he fell back and hid his face in his hands. She still advanced,
however, and with a languorous, voluptuous grace, said:- "Come to me,
Arthur. Leave these others and come to me. My arms are hungry for you.
Come, and we can rest together. Come, my husband, come!(pg.39)

Lucy's behavior is indicative of an individual who is true to human
nature. She is violent and her own survival precedes that of others.
Most people will never allow themselves to undergo the type of violent
and sexual experiences that vampires like Lucy and Mina encounter.
 Kneeling on the near edge of the bed facing outwards
 was the white-clad
figure of his wife. By her side stood a tall, thin man, clad in black.
His face was turned from us, but the instant we saw we all recognized
the Count-in every way, even to the scar on his forehead. With his left
hand he held both Mrs. Harker's hands, keeping them away with her arms
at full tension; his right hand gripped her by the back of the neck,
forcing her face down on his bosom. Her white nightdress was smeared
with blood , and a thin stream trickled down the man's bare breast
which was shown by his torn open dress. The attitude of the two had a
terrible resemblance to a child forcing a kitten's nose into a saucer
of milk to compel it to drink.(pg.298) This very erotic image
represents what many want, especially the Victorians, but which few
will allow themselves to achieve. It is because of society's influence
on the lives of its members, that people learn to suppress their true
desires. People are conditioned, by society, to believe that many
desires are immoral. By reading a novel like Dracula each reader is
able, if only for a short time, to allow the emergence of a darker side
of their humanity. In the 20th century, due primarily to the electronic
age, everything a person does has the potential to become known. There
is a general belief in modern society that all knowledge is of public
domain. Reading Dracula is a private and safe way to experience a very
profound sense of release. The reader, in the comfort established by
the simplicity of the gender roles in the novel also achieves this
feeling of release.
 Stoker has a very strict formula for the appropriate roles of
 male and female characters in his novel, which is comforting to
 a reader, living in a modern civilization defined by the search
 for gender equality. Van Helsing represents a very masculine
 character, who momentarily crosses the gender line after Lucy's
 He laughed till he cried, and I had to draw down the
 blinds lest anyone
should see us and misjudge; and then he cried, till he laughed again;
and laughed and cried together just as a woman does. I tried to be
stern with him, as one is to a woman under the circumstances; but it
had no effect. Men and women are so different in manifestations of
nervous strength or weakness!(pg.183) Stoker very plainly implies in
this scene that for a man to display emotion, is to show femininity and
to betray his own masculinity. He recognizes that men and women are
unequivocally different. In Dracula he refrains from encouraging the
confusion of gender roles, for indeed this type of confusion can only
harm both sexes, particularly women.
 Ah, that wonderful Madam Mina! She has a man's brain-a
 brain that a man
should have were he much gifted-and a woman's heart. The good God
fashioned her for a purpose, believe me when He made that so good
combination. Friend John, up to now fortune has made that woman to help
us; after to-night she must not have to do with this so terrible
affair. It is not good that she run a risk so great. We men are
determined-nay, are we not pledged?-to destroy this monster; but it is
no part for a woman. Even if she be not harmed, her heart may fail her
in so much and so many horrors; and hereafter she may suffer-both in
waking, from her nerves, and in sleep, from her dreams.(pg248) Mina is
a character whom Dr. Seward believes is unlike most other women because
of her intelligence. For a woman to have the intelligence of a man
implies that she must serve some incredible purpose. However, even her
vast intelligence does not compensate for the fact that she is still a
woman, and a woman has no place around violence or demons. Seward
expresses Stoker's belief that the chief organ of men is the brain and
of women the heart. In the 20th century there are few tasks which are
not attended to by both men and women. There is no longer a clear gap
between the sexes, and for modern society this presents confusion.
Solace is found in a story where men are masculine and women are
feminine and equity is unheard of. Gender equity has cured many social
ills but the novel Dracula represents a time in which the issue was
much simpler, and perhaps there is a yearning, on behalf of 20th
century society for this simplicity. Over a century has passed since
Dracula was first published and in this time its relevance and appeal
to its readers has been heightened. The mythological creatures which
Stoker originally wrote about, have over time become a scientific fact,
making them more frightening then ever intended. It is through studying
Dracula that modern readers experience emotional liberation as they
live vicariously through the vampires in the novel. This same reader
finds relief in the conciseness of which Stoker defines the sexes
because of the gender role confusion in the 20th century. 

represents an escape from a conflicted and complicated modern society to a world where many issues were much simpler; it is not often that a novel becomes more appealing to readers as it ages. The evolution of society in many ways has had positive effects on the quality of life of that society, however this quality has been achieved with an obvious cost, and the novel Dracula provides relief from this stress. Works Cited Stoker, Bram. Dracula. Bantam Books. New York. 1981 http://www.columbia.edu/acis/bartleby/bartlett/bart102.html. Bartlett's Quotations. 5 3


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