Anna Karenina


Leo Tolstoy's novel, Anna Karenina, upon its release received a 
mix critical reception, with Russian critics either condemning
or applauding the novel primarily on its views of Russian society. 
Thematically, the novel parallels its heroine's, Anna Karenina,
moral and social conflicts with Constantin Levin's internal struggle 
to find the meaning of life. There are many others underlying themes 
which links the novel as a whole, yet many critics at the time only 
looked upon its critical view of Russian life. Henry James called 
Tolstoy's novels as "loose and baggy monsters' of stylessness, but 
Tolstoy stated of Anna Karenina ".....I am very proud of its 
architecture--its vaults are joined so that one cannot even notice 
where the keystone is." That is absolutely correct, because within 
Anna Karenina, there exists many themes that are all linked together 
to create such a wonderful piece of work. Critics tend to miss the 
role that the theme of life and death plays in Tolstoy's Anna 
Karenina. Despite its apparent meanings, these two themes are 
intertwined in the novel and provides a backbone for some of the other 
existing themes. With a masterful touch, Tolstoy is able to use these 
two themes to show the characters in their true forms at both stages. 
The characters are shown to be living in a state of delusion, and as 
the characters find themselves at times of near death situations or on 
their deathbed, they are able to reveal themselves truthfully. 

 Many of the characters in the novel are able to show their "real 
self" and at times of death, there is a point of reversal in the
characters. This is most evident in the scene of Anna's near death 
experience during her illness. This event brings about a change in 
Karenin and even Vronsky as they trade positions. Karenin suddenly 
becomes human and not hidden from life by his administrative 
regulations. His carapace cracks, and he becomes drunk with sympathy, 
dazzled by his own generosity. Death for Karenin becomes the basic 
truth which makes him___ a living human being capable of love. While 
on the other hand, Vronsky takes on the role of Karenin, he is unable 
to deal with Anna's deathbed crisis and even goes as far as attempting 
to suicide. This awareness of life-in-death provides the climax of the 
novel, with the main characters perceiving the truth from the
heights of their emotional intensity. Hate and deceit no longer exist 
in the presence of death, and the three characters live in a
moment of pure innocence. 

 Yet as the crisis ends, and everything returns to normality, Anna, 
Vronsky and Karenin return to their old ways to live in that world of 
delusion. Anna and Vronsky continues with their ill-fated love, while 
Karenin despite his ennoblement, finds Anna cannot love him and 
reverts back to his old ways. This clearly shows that death brings 
about the ultimate truth of life and the world of the living is just a 

 Death in the novel is personified by Levin's brother, the 
all-too-intimate Nikolai, whose lingering, ghastly death pushes Levin 
to make the leap of faith. This the leap of faith which the other 
characters had experienced, but were unable to retain after their 
dramatic experience with death. Levin is unlike them, and is in fact, 
able to discover for himself the meaning of life in the world and 
retain his leap of faith. For Levin in the end, he is no longer afraid 
of death and even though he does not completely change, he now knows 
the meaning of life and is at peace. 

 Levin's example here provides for the reader an insight into 
Tolstoy's intertwining and complex structure in Anna Karenina. The
reader is able to better understand how the role of death is critical 
to the novel. Levin serves as the backbone for Tolstoy's emphasis on 
the "natural life" where one loves and procreates, as opposed to the 
"unnatural life" where one lives by abstract principles. The natural 
man, according to Tolstoy, grasps life through all its realities and 
can then understan death. Intellect and spirit merely bypass essential 

 While in the world of the living, Tolstoy shows the reader the 
delusions of life through various characters. Especially apparent is
the princess Betsy Tverskoy who is so caught up in her daily life and 
is unable to change. She throws extravagant dinner parties for that 
part of society which feasts on delusions. The irony behind it is that 
they, despite their disillusionment, mocks Anna at one of the parties 
where she had shown up with her lover, Vronsky. This is in essence the 
downfall of Anna, who has succumbed to passion for her lover. 

 The themes of life and death will come to review itself in the 
novel. As for Anna, she embodies the both of them even thought she 
didn't know it. In the end as Anna traces the career which drives her 
to suicide in her long soliloquy, she discovers that her love had 
turned to hate, that her life has become a "stupid delusion" and death 
provides the only alternative. Anna now accepts death as she she had 
spontaneously and naturally confronted her love. Anna's death is an 
affirmation of her deep commitment to life and that death is the final 
truth to her illustrious career. "And the candle by which she _ had 
been reading the book filled with trouble and deceit, sorrow and evil, 
flared up with a brighter light, illuminating for her everything that 
before had been enshrouded in darkness, flickered, grew dim, and went 
out forever." (Tolstoy,p.816) 

 Tolstoy cleverly uses the themes of life and especially death 
beneath the other themes in an intricate structure. Tolstoy uses the
themes as a vehicle to link the themes together to relate it to the 
readers. The theme of death is most critical to the novel, because it 
invokes the characters in the novel to do what they do. That fear of 
death and not being able to understand it, is the reason for 
characters' actions. It is the backbone for the other themes of the 
"natural man," love and deceit, "unhappy family," adultery, and some 
other themes that exists in the novel.

 In Anna Karenina, Tolstoy seems to be in search of answers for his 
own questions through the two main characters of the novel, Anna and 
Levin. There are aspects of each character that can be accredited to 
Tolstoy himself, and this provides the reader with a chance to see the 
development of not only Anna and Levin, but also Tolstoy himself. 
Tolstoy is also afraid of death and through his character's 
development he is able to discover for himself. 

 Tolstoy's Anna Karenina provides a lot of insight into our own 
lives. We need to look to the past to protect the future, and yet
we tend to forget that. Nevertheless, Tolstoy has created a wonderful 
piece of literature with a intricate plot structure. As Sydney 
Schultze puts it, "the study of the novel's construction is rewarding 
because the book is so beautifully crated." With regards to the theme, 
I would be justified to say that it is the keystone, which Tolstoy 
mentioned about, of the architecture of the book. 

 Death is an integral part of everybody's life and no matter who it 
is, everybody fears death. To come to terms with death is something 
that takes a lot of courage and a full understanding of oneself. 
Tolstoy in his novel, has revealed to us the effect that death can 
have on a person and advocates us to not succumb to the daily life of 
the world which we live in, because it is all a delusion. Yet if we 
live as naturally as possible, we can get a better grasp on the true 
essence of life as Levin does in the novel. He finds joy out of 
working and enjoying the fruits of his labor, instead of indulging 
himself in the materialism of the hypocritical aristocrats. Modern 
culture has lost this aspect of life and we need to check ourselves 
before we lead our lives into a downfall.

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