The Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway
Outline 1. Introduction 1. Hemingway's different code hero 2. Time period's acceptance of it 3. Thesis Statement: In The Sun Also Rises, Hemingway illustrates what the Code Hero should and should not be through Jake, Cohn, Romero, Bill, and Mike. 2. Body Section 1. Way of life 1. Fearing but confronting death - Grace under pressure 1. Romero 1. in the bullring 2. In fight with Cohn 2. Cohn 1. Boxing 2.
for the sake of sports 2. Drinking 1. not excessively 1. Mike 2. Cohn 2. always in control 1. Jake 2. Sociability 1. Talking 1. very little 1. Jake and Bill 2. Cohn 2. not about one's accomplishments 1. Romero 2. Cohn 2. Who to spend time with 1. Those of skill 1. Jake and Bill 2. Avoiding the unskilled 1. Jake and Cohn 3. knowing when not wanted 1. Cohn 4. Great loyalty to a single social group 1. Jake with Bill, Brett, & Montoya 3. Conclusion 1. Sum up in a couple sentences 2. Ending statement about Hemingway's Code Hero When Hemingway's novels first began to appear, the public readily and enthusiastically accepted them. This was partly because Hemingway had created a new type of fictional character whose attitude toward life was very appealing to the people of the 1920s. This type of character is commonly called the Hemingway Code Hero. The average reader at this time identified with Hemingway's Code Hero because that is what they dreamed they could be. In The Sun Also Rises, Hemingway illustrates what the Code Hero should and should not be through Jake, Cohn, Romero, Bill, and Mike. Hemingway believed that a man should fear death because it is the end of everything. Since nothing exists after death, he should make the most of life and avoid death at all costs. However, Hemingway places Romero, his Code Hero, in the life-threatening bullring regularly, showing that the Code Hero must be able to act acceptably in the face of death. From this one can derive the idea of grace under pressure: A man must have fear of death but must not be afraid to die. Fear of death is the realization that death is the end of everything and that it is to be avoided at all costs. Romero shows grace under pressure while bullfighting. The bull could very well kill him, but he is unafraid, and performs calmly and smoothly. During his fight with Robert Cohn, he keeps getting back up and standing it out until the end. Robert Cohn, on the other hand, is a coward. He learns the art of boxing solely to combat derogatory remarks about his religion, and does not believe in sports for the sake of sports. Drinking is another characteristic of Hemingway's Code Hero. One should drink plenty, unlike Cohn who does not drink at all. Also, a man should not drink so excessively that he becomes sloppy and undisciplined, like Mike, who is constantly "tight." Jake Barnes is the perfect example of the Code Hero in this sense. He drinks a lot, but stays lucid and disciplined in his drunkenness. Another aspect of the Code Hero is sociality. First, he should not talk too much. He should express himself not in words but in action. Jake and Bill are very concise in their words, nearly talking in shorthand. Cohn, on the other hand, prattles about a trip to and does nothing about it, forgetting he even talked about it when he meets Brett two minutes later. The Code Hero should also avoid talking about his own accomplishments. When he says "let's not talk about it" he is signifying that he has performed some act of bravery and will not discuss it. Hemingway believes that the only thing that counts is the action; talking is simply emotionalism. If one talks about his accomplishment too much, he loses the importance of the act itself. Pedro Romero is a good example. He is very modest about his exquisitely excellent bullfighting, rarely bragging. Cohn, however, is different. Immediately after his affair with Brett Ashley, he tries not to say anything, but soon breaks and lets out his emotions. He becomes very supercilious because the affair made him feel superior. Talking about one's accomplishments, according to Hemingway, is clearly not a masculine trait. An aspect a Code Hero does depend on is with whom he spends time. Usually, he will attempt to associate with people of equal or greater skill than himself. As an example, Jake finds Bill to be a very nice companion, because, like Jake, he is very smart and an excellent journalist. Jake, however, does not like Cohn and avoids him as much as possible because of his false "air of superior knowledge" and his mediocrity. Furthermore, the Hemingway Hero should know when he is unwanted, and leave. Cohn lacks this quality too. Jake cannot understand why people like Robert Cohn keep hanging around where they are unwanted. Jake knows there are enough people in the world who think like him and who like him, so he has no intention of associating with people of another nature. This brings up the topic of loyalty. Hemingway's Code Hero always has a special loyalty to one tight group of close friends, such as Jake has to Bill, Brett, and Montoya, at least through most of the story. Proper social skills are vital to being called a Code Hero. In summation, a Code Hero, according to Hemingway, must have grace under pressure, should drink excessively but not sloppily, and must not talk too much, especially about his accomplishments. He must have proper social skills, such as knowing when he is unwanted and not associating with the mediocre. The Hemingway Code Hero was a well-accepted concept in its time. Hemingway had successfully created the type of character of which the readers of the time dreamed. This creation was great, one that would be appreciated for generations.