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The Tramp 
"Liberators", a documentary film produced by Nina Rosenblum
and William Miles illustrates the heroic efforts of
African-Americans during the second world war. It is about
black soldiers fighting a war on two fronts; in Germany
against Nazism, and in America against racism. All this is
brought out by archival film footage, narrative voice overs
and interviews with black veterans and Jewish victims of
World War II. By the same token, Barbara Baynton's short
story, "The Tramp" deals with a woman's fight against
depression. There are many similarities and differences in
the way print and non-print texts confronts the issues. 

The documentary establishes the mood through emotional
recollections and powerful voice overs, and informs with
archival footage. An example of this is in the exposition
when there is a mid shot of the black soldiers loading
ammunition into cannons. This sets out to show that the
African-American soldiers are doing the same thing as the
white American male soldier; putting their lives at risk
for the good of the country. Non-print text is unable
unable to use multimedia techniques (i.e. audio-visual),
however, the use of characterization and descriptive
language can aptly replace it. Baynton creates a setting in
which everybody conforms to his/her stereotype; the
boundary rider is tough but kind, the woman is easily
dominated, and the tramp is a slathering pervert. Through
the actions and reactions of the characters, Baynton
attacks society's acceptance of female compliance. An
example of this is when the narrative voice says "It was

Humanity's dominance over nature and males' dominance over
females is another example of a dual front conflict, and
links "The Tramp" strongly with "Liberators". "Liberators"
also tries to expel a stereotype; that of Negroes, and
likewise tries to glorify them. This is done indirectly
through a Jewish survivor's account of his rescue from a
concentration camp by the African-American regiment. The
recollection takes place in the concentration camp where he
was rescued (Buchenwald) and he talking to no-one in
particular. One of the veterans is standing beside him and
the cameraman is standing about two meters away from the
pair giving a medium torso/head shot. An example of
stereotyping in the Tramp is in the quote "She was not one
to provoke skirmishes, even with the cow." The word
"skirmish" means a little battle and is normally only used
in a military context. By exaggerating a scuffle into a
battle, it highlights the contrast in aggressiveness
between the woman and the man. The woman will call any
little tussle a war and try to avoid it at all costs,
whereas the man tries to induce them. Also, the word
"provoke" confirms the submissiveness of the woman 

The main advantage that the film text has over the print
text is the ability to use juxtaposition. One such example
is when there is a scene of archival footage depicting some
Ku Klux Klansmen marching down a street at night carrying
the American flag, with bonfires burning along the pavement
and spectators cramming the sidewalks. The scene that
immediately follows it, is a medium close up, low camera
shot of a Nazi soldier with the Nazi flag flying in the
background over his left shoulder. The connotations of this
can be gotten strictly visually. 

Both the author and the film producer had strong ideas
about social stereotypes. They both had two parallel
conflicts and used them to their full advantage. Even
though the film and the story had different techniques
available to them, they each utilized them effectively and


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