When a tissue or organ is transferred from one part of the body to another, or to another person's body, it is considered a transplant. Transplanted tissues and organs replace diseased, damaged, or destroyed, body parts. Tissues include whole bol\od, blodd vessels, bones, and corneas. Such majororgans as hears, kidneys, livers, lungs, and pancreases are also transplanted. Doctors successfully transplant some kinds of tissues fairly often. For example, they use grafts of healthy skin to replace skin destroyed by extensive burns. Thjeu remove diseased or damaged corneas from eyes and put healthy ones in their place. Perhaps the best known type of transplant is the blood transfusion. Doctors also have transplanted such major organs as kidneys and livers from one person's boty to another. Often, such transplants fail after months or years because the body rejects the foreign cells. Special mechanisms in the body produce antibodies, which destroy all strange cells that enter the body. Antibodies are one of the body's most important defenses against germs. Drugs and X rays are used to stop production of antibodies when organs are transplanted. But this procedure depribes the body of its chief means for foghting infection. Scientists are looking for ways to make the body accept transplanted cells and still protect itself against infection. The most successful transplants of whole organs are those between identical twins. The cells of identical twins are so similar that antibodies do not fomr. Large scale research on transplantation started during the late 1940's. In 1954, doctors at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in
performed the fist successful kidney transplant.