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Computer Simulation


WARSIM 2000 is simulation software, used by the armed
forces. Extensive, thorough, and tiring work has been done
on thgis program. It covers almost all aspects and
situations required for realistic, meticulous and a
complete simulation. Information Technology has lead to the
advancement of the tools required to build the simulator.
Information Technolgy's guideleines and technolgy have
reinforced this creative simulator
General Description of Operational Capability. WARSIM 2000
will increase the effectiveness of commander and battle
staff training by dramatically increasing the realism and
the scope of the available training environment. In
conjunction with other services' simulations, WARSIM 2000
will provide a complete operational environment with
scenarios drawn from the entire operational continuum to
support Army, joint and coalition force training
distributed across the globe.
a. The WARSIM 2000 simulation system will use a
computer-based simulation and associated hardware to
support the training of unit commanders and their battle
staffs from battalion through theater-level as well as to
support training events in educational institutions.
Designed and built using modern computer technology, modern
software engineering techniques, and validated algorithms
and databases, it will allow units world-wide to train
using their organizational equipment. A key feature of the
system will be its use of technology to minimize the total
Army's overhead associated with supporting training. The
system will be designed to meet emerging Distributed
Interactive Simulation (DIS) standards and protocols to
facilitate linkages with DIS compliant simulators and live
training events.
b. The WARSIM 2000 simulation system will consist of, or
use, several components:
(1) Computer-based battle simulation models that portray
the joint and combined environment needed to support Army
training events.
(2) Software modules for linking WARSIM 2000 to other
simulation models to expand the training environment for
joint force training exercises.
(3) Databases.
(4) Computer systems to run the simulation models and
support the databases.
(5) Technical control systems/workstations for use by
personnel in an exercise support function e.g., simulation
controllers, analysts, and opposing/ surrounding forces
role players.
(6) Flexible and responsive terrestrial/satellite
communications gateways and media for transmitting voice,
data, facsimile, and video between different elements at
remote locations involved in supporting a training exercise.
c. WARSIM 2000 will meet the Mission Need Statement's
(MNS's) requirement for providing a training environment
that will allow unit commanders and battle staffs to focus
their warfighters and systems in countering threats across
the operational continuum. WARSIM 2000 must provide an
environment that presents problems to stress and stimulate
commanders and their battle staff to assess the situation,
determine courses of action, and plan and issue new orders
in a timely manner, all while using their organizational
equipment and procedures.
d. Logistical support for WARSIM 2000 will be based on a
government- owned contractor-supported system. The
government will own necessary hardware, have all
proprietary rights to the developmental hardware and
software components, and full license rights to the
non-developmental software components of WARSIM 2000.
Contracted logistical support will provide for the
maintenance of government-owned computer hardware at all
e. The acquisition and development strategy for WARSIM 2000
must abide by several constraints.
(1) The WARSIM 2000 acquisition must build upon the
successful infrastructure of current simulations so that
the training community (Army and international) can train
in an evolutionary progressive yet consistent manner. The
Army has invested significant resources into developing its
training simulation systems, linking them with other
service simulations via the Aggregate Level Simulation
Protocol confederation, and proliferating them throughout
the Army and the international community. While these
systems have shortcomings that must be fixed, they provide
a training environment and representations of combat that
have been accepted by the training community world-wide.
The WARSIM 2000 acquisition must allow the confederation of
simulations structure to evolve in a manner that allows
current users (Army and international) to maintain access
to the confederation without having to make a substantial
near-term investment in resources.
(2) Meeting the WARSIM 2000 requirements will demand
significant technological innovations. However, there are
many existing and developing systems that could and should
be part of the overall solution. The acquisition strategy
must ensure that developers optimize the investment of each
service in existing systems (instead of starting from a
blank sheet of paper) and insert echnology into the
training environment in a way that improves training.
(3) Fielding of new capabilities, whether they be
functional representations or technological enhancements,
must be either practically transparent to the user or be
accompanied by training so the user can understand and
receive the benefit of the new capabilities.
(4 The acquisition strategy must allow for regular user
involvement in the development process. User evaluations
and requirements must serve as a primary source for
determining changes to the system. 2. Threat. Rather than
counter a specific threat, WARSIM will provide a training
environment capable of representing threats from across the
operational continuum. 3. Shortcomings of Existing Systems.
Current simulations were designed for training corps and
division staffs on command and control techniques for Army
operations in mid-intensity combat. Current software is
bound to proprietary operating systems and hardware. The
software design, especially the underlying representation
of terrain, precludes representing the detailed
functionality required for resolving the high resolution
interactions needed to train commanders and battle staffs
at levels from battalion to operational level commanders in
joint scenarios for war and operations other than war. 4.
Capabilities Required. WARSIM 2000 will support commander
and battle staff training from battalion up to theater
level. While the major simulation models of WARSIM 2000
will run on computers housed in fixed regional facilities,
transportable Simulation Support Modules (SSMs) will
provide support functions under the control of a senior
controller at locations near the training unit. Users of
the simulation will train under the guidance of a senior
trainer, usually the unit's commander, the next higher
level commander, or an instructor at institutions. WARSIM
will provide users a complete training environment
consisting of simulations, data, support functions and
a. System Performance. The following description of
requirements for the WARSIM 2000 training environment
addresses in turn each of the functional components
described in paragraph 1.b.
(1) The Simulation. WARSIM 2000's simulation component must
have the following functional characteristics.
(a) General Attributes.
(i) Size. The model must be large enough to support a
multi- echelon corps or theater exercise. The model must
also be able to link to other copies of itself to support
larger exercises. The simulation must also be able to
support multiple, concurrent, smaller training exercises,
such as several battalion headquarters training
(ii) Weather. The simulation must accurately portray the
impact that weather elements have on operations (space,
air, and ground). At a minimum, the simulation must account
for the following weather elements: cloud amount and
height, visibility, restrictions to visibility (e.g.
precipitation, fog, smoke, dust and sand), precipitation
accumulation, surface wind direction and speed,
temperature, relative humidity, altimeter setting, and
solar and lunar light data. These weather elements must be
allowed to range from tropical to arctic regions, to vary
over the geographic area of interest, and to change as
often as hourly. In addition, wind direction and speed and
temperature in a vertical profile up to 70,000 feet must be
allowed to impact Nuclear Biological and Chemical NBC)
weapons with changes incorporated at least twice per day.
(iii) Terrain. The simulation must provide a level of
resolution of terrain such that tactical considerations of
terrain analysis and the dynamic effects of man-made or
natural occurrences (e.g. bomb craters, minefields, battle
damage on roads, the obstacle effect of rivers,
hydrography, and weather) as considered during Intelligence
Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB) will affect the
battle. The minimum acceptable tactical considerations
include the following areas: the impact of line-of-sight
(to include sonar and electromagnetic spectrum
considerations of concealment, thermal, optical and radar
visibility, and signal site emplacement) between potential
interactors whether they be sensors or weapon systems, air,
ship, or ground mounted; the ability of terrain to support
the movement of personnel, vehicles and units over time,
and the accurate portrayal of the location of natural and
man-made obstacles. The outcomes of the simulated events
must be sensitive to changes in the weather (described
above in paragraph 4.a.(1)(a)(ii)) as it affects terrain.
(iv) Time. The simulation must be capable of running faster
than real time to a pre-defined point in time or an event,
while requiring minimal input, and providing summarized
output. Users must be able to "age" the simulation to
accommodate a training scenario that describes actions in
the midst of a campaign. The senior controller must be able
to have the simulation start, stop/interrupt, rollback to
any specified point in scenario, restart from a given point
or the initial conditions and conduct concurrent replay.
The senior controller must have the capability to change
any attributes of the simulated entities or the game
characteristics at any time.
(b) Conditions and Constraints.
(i) Scenarios. The goal is for the simulation to portray
events that could arise from scenarios based on any point
in the operational continuum. At a minimum, requirements
are for scenarios for war in Europe, Southwest Asia,
Southeast Asia and Korea and for operations other than war
in these locations as well as Central and South America and
(ii) Fidelity. The simulation must allow commanders and
battle staffs to do their tasks under the conditions and
standards outlined in the Army Training and Evaluation
Program Mission Training Plans (MTPs) for command groups
and staff referenced in Appendix 1 to Annex A.
(iii) Level of Detail. The simulation must be able to
portray a level of detail that captures the effects of
individual entities on the battle, e.g., single weapon
platform, emitter, and sensor systems. Entities that
operate near each other as cohesive units can be portrayed
in aggregated units from team to battalion that represent
the normal mode of employment. Individual, low-density,
entities that operate in a geographically dispersed mode
must be portrayed as they are employed, e.g., signal nodes,
radars, jammers, missile and rocket systems, engineer
obstacle systems, and individual surveillance and laser
designation systems. All systems will be portrayed using
performance data appropriate to the level of classification
of the exercise.
(iv) Reports. The simulation must provide feedback to the
training unit by sending reports of simulated events. These
reports must be formatted in a doctrinally correct fashion
and occur in a time-appropriate banner. The reports must
not reveal all of ground truth but reflect that information
that the simulated unit would reasonably know given its
status, time removed from the reported incident, and
deployed intelligence assets.
(v) Human Factors. The simulation must portray the effects
of operations on the human condition as it relates to
combat effectiveness. At a minimum, the simulation must
consider unit morale and cohesion, time subject to hostile
actions, availability of religious support, unit attrition
rate over time, weather, and operational tempo.
(vi) Simulated Mistakes. The simulation must cause
simulated entities to "make mistakes" based on a
predetermined level of training and a variable combat
effectiveness determined by human factors . The mistakes
should be of two types: mistakes in actions taken and
mistakes in actions reported. Mistakes in actions taken
fall along the lines of getting lost e.g., arriving at or
attacking the wrong location, delivering the improper
quantities of supplies, or delivering the wrong supplies.
These types of mistakes will change the ground truth of the
simulation. Along with reports that are accurate but
incomplete, other reports will contain information that is
different from ground truth. These mistakes in reporting
will occur when a simulated unit makes a report to the
training unit that conflicts with ground truth in the
simulation. These mistaken reports will not change ground
truth. The simulation must have the ability to provide the
correct information if challenged for confirmation. The
level of training and combat effectiveness must change over
exercise time with a corresponding change in the number of
mistakes. The senior trainer must have the capability to
cause a simulated unit to make specific mistakes during the
exercise. The senior trainer must be able to easily adjust
the severity and frequency of simulated mistakes during an
exercise to include being able to set the level to zero, in
effect turning off the mistakes. The senior trainer and the
After Action Review systems must have access to both ground
truth and mistakes data.
(vii) Surrounding Units. Training units, to include combat,
combat support, and combat service support units that
support maneuver brigades, must be able to interact with
the simulation without the presence of any other units.
This will require the simulation to emulate forward, flank
and rear units, supported and supporting units, as well as
the next higher and lower echelon units, that would
normally exist on the battlefield, but are not present for
the particular training event. The simulation must be able
to portray dynamic scenario and event dependent
intelligence and reports concerning the activities of these
units as well as their requests for information and
resources from the training units.
(viii) Multi-Level Input/Output. The simulation must be
able to accommodate an exercise where different levels
(division, igade, battalion) are interacting with the
simulation. Each level must be able to train using the
simulation by issuing only its normal orders and
instructions to the simulation while receiving only its
normal reports and data from all sources. The simulation
must receive and present its information in the format and
level of detail appropriate to the training unit. The
simulation-provided information must not always be 100
percent accurate. The information should at times contain
errors that one could expect to obtain in a realistic
Bibliography: "WARSIM 2000, The Few, The Proud, The... hey
they're not there!" Article #45, SIRS Encyclpaedias,
Applied Science, 1994. 


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