Perspectives In Management
To start, we need to provide some background information on Messrs. Taylor and Weber. Frederick Winslow Taylor was born on March 20, 1856, in Germantown, Pennsylvania. By the age of nineteen, he held an apprenticeship as a patternmaker and machinist in the city of Philadelphia. By the age of twenty-four, or thereabouts, as a gang boss employed by Midvale Steel, where his involvement helped in the determination of accrurate measurement of what constituted a full day of labor on any operation. What followed were a series of experiments that resulted in important breakthroughs in two fields; mechanical engineering and management. The mechanical engineering dealt with a new method of tempering tool steel for permitting high speed metal-cutting, while the management arena brought new life to the area of shop management, which later became known as scientific management. Taylor's life devotion forwarded the principles of his system. He became a consulting engineer in management at the age of thirty-seven and provided lectures and writings for the next eight years. His writings concluded as a series of seven books, and he earned the title "Father of Scientific Management" through them. He died in Philadelphia on March 21, 1915. Max Weber was born on April 24, 1864, in Erfurt, Germany. By the age of thirty-nine, a professor, he enjoyed employment at the Berlin University, then moved to the Freiburg at the age of forty, and finally, at the age of fifty-four, he moved to the Munich University. In the early part of his tenure at Freiburg, he developed a theory of authority structures and described organizational activity based on authority relations. His development of the ideals of bureaucracy consisted of division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, impersonal relationships, formal selection and career orientation. His findings are the basis for the structure of many large organizations today. Although Weber only had four publications during his life, an additional six publications followed his death. Max Weber died on June 14, 1920, in Munich, Germany. Weber, originally classified as an Economist, pursued his works in the fields of Sociology and Social philosophy. The comparative analysis of Taylor to Weber will begin with Taylor's requirement that the need to develop a science for each work element of an individuals work would paralell with Weber's ideal of the division of labor. Both men have suggested that we select the proper individual to perform a particular routine that would include the precise steps to complete a work routine. This relation will then allow the most productive work effort to be gained by the selection of the individuals that complete the assembly of the component. Taylor's principle on the use of scientific selection and Weber's formal selection are in paralell due to the very nature of the selection criteria. Both stress the use of technical selection based on demonstration of training, education, or formal examination. Taylor adds the development of the worker as a crutical point. This point was clarified by the reward of additional wage compensation to the worker involved in the study. Taylor stressed the bonding of the worker to the requirements of management, as Weber suggests in his presentation of formal rules and regulations. This concept brought thee requirements of the mangerial portion of the work involved to the workers level, so that the uniforminity and regulations concerning the work is made available to the workers. By involving the workers in ways that let them have knowledge of the product, management then placed a small burden to produce quality product for the marketplace. Finally, Taylor presented the concept that the worker and managment would divide work and responsibility alomost equally between themselves. Wber used two prionciples to present this view, they are authority heirachry and impersonality. This area convered the ability of management tp properly provide the worker with the appropriate tool(s) to complete the work or task in the shortest time period, and thus improve the overall productivity. Weber added the career orientation principle that defined managers as professional officials with fixed salaries along with the ability and guidelines to pursue thier careers within the organization. This ability presentated a career path for the manager as he achived his goal releated objectives and gave rise through the organizaional structure as an award for the service he performed.