Perspectives In Management


To start, we need to provide some background information on
Messrs. Taylor and Weber.
Frederick Winslow Taylor was born on March 20, 1856, in
Germantown, Pennsylvania. By the age of nineteen, he held
an apprenticeship as a patternmaker and machinist in the
city of Philadelphia. By the age of twenty-four, or
thereabouts, as a gang boss employed by Midvale Steel,
where his involvement helped in the determination of
accrurate measurement of what constituted a full day of
labor on any operation. What followed were a series of
experiments that resulted in important breakthroughs in two
fields; mechanical engineering and management. The
mechanical engineering dealt with a new method of tempering
tool steel for permitting high speed metal-cutting, while
the management arena brought new life to the area of shop
management, which later became known as scientific
management. Taylor's life devotion forwarded the principles
of his system. He became a consulting engineer in
management at the age of thirty-seven and provided lectures
and writings for the next eight years. His writings
concluded as a series of seven books, and he earned the
title "Father of Scientific Management" through them. He
died in Philadelphia on March 21, 1915.
Max Weber was born on April 24, 1864, in Erfurt, Germany.
By the age of thirty-nine, a professor, he enjoyed
employment at the Berlin University, then moved to the
Freiburg at the age of forty, and finally, at the age of
fifty-four, he moved to the Munich University. In the early
part of his tenure at Freiburg, he developed a theory of
authority structures and described organizational activity
based on authority relations. His development of the ideals
of bureaucracy consisted of division of labor, a clearly
defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations,
impersonal relationships, formal selection and career
orientation. His findings are the basis for the structure
of many large organizations today. Although Weber only had
four publications during his life, an additional six
publications followed his death. Max Weber died on June 14,
1920, in Munich, Germany. Weber, originally classified as
an Economist, pursued his works in the fields of Sociology
and Social philosophy.
The comparative analysis of Taylor to Weber will begin with
Taylor's requirement that the need to develop a science for
each work element of an individuals work would paralell
with Weber's ideal of the division of labor. Both men have
suggested that we select the proper individual to perform a
particular routine that would include the precise steps to
complete a work routine. This relation will then allow the
most productive work effort to be gained by the selection
of the individuals that complete the assembly of the
Taylor's principle on the use of scientific selection and
Weber's formal selection are in paralell due to the very
nature of the selection criteria. Both stress the use of
technical selection based on demonstration of training,
education, or formal examination. Taylor adds the
development of the worker as a crutical point. This point
was clarified by the reward of additional wage compensation
to the worker involved in the study.
Taylor stressed the bonding of the worker to the
requirements of management, as Weber suggests in his
presentation of formal rules and regulations. This concept
brought thee requirements of the mangerial portion of the
work involved to the workers level, so that the
uniforminity and regulations concerning the work is made
available to the workers. By involving the workers in ways
that let them have knowledge of the product, management
then placed a small burden to produce quality product for
the marketplace.
Finally, Taylor presented the concept that the worker and
managment would divide work and responsibility alomost
equally between themselves. Wber used two prionciples to
present this view, they are authority heirachry and
impersonality. This area convered the ability of management
tp properly provide the worker with the appropriate tool(s)
to complete the work or task in the shortest time period,
and thus improve the overall productivity.
Weber added the career orientation principle that defined
managers as professional officials with fixed salaries
along with the ability and guidelines to pursue thier
careers within the organization. This ability presentated a
career path for the manager as he achived his goal releated
objectives and gave rise through the organizaional
structure as an award for the service he performed. 

Quotes: Search by Author