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Freedom in the United States


 No other democratic society in the world permits personal 
freedoms to the degree of the United States of America. Within the 
last sixty years, American courts, especially the Supreme Court, have 
developed a set of legal doctrines that thoroughly protect all forms 
of the freedom of expression. When it comes to evaluating the degree 
to which we take advantage of the opportunity to express our opinions, 
some members of society may be guilty of violating the bounds of the 
First Amendment by publicly offending others through obscenity or 
racism. Americans have developed a distinct disposition toward the 
freedom of expression throughout history.
 The First Amendment clearly voices a great American respect 
toward the freedom of religion. It also prevents the government from 
"abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the 
people peaceably to assemble and to petition the Government for a 
redress of grievances." Since the early history of our country, the 
protection of basic freedoms has been of the utmost importance to 
 In Langston Hughes' poem, "Freedom," he emphasizes the 
struggle to enjoy the freedoms that he knows are rightfully his. He 
reflects the American desire for freedom now when he says, "I do not 
need my freedom when I'm dead. I cannot live on tomorrow's bread." 
He recognizes the need for freedom in its entirety without compromise 
or fear.
 I think Langston Hughes captures the essence of the American 
immigrants' quest for freedom in his poem, "Freedom's Plow." He 
accurately describes American's as arriving with nothing but dreams 
and building America with the hopes of finding greater freedom or 
freedom for the first time. He depicts how people of all backgrounds 
worked together for one cause: freedom.
 I selected Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 as a fictitious 
example of the evils of censorship in a world that is becoming 
illiterate. In this book, the government convinces the public that 
book reading is evil because it spreads harmful opinions and agitates 
people against the government. The vast majority of people accept 
this censorship of expression without question and are content to see 
and hear only the government's propaganda. I found this disturbing 
yet realistic. Bradbury's hidden opposition to this form of 
censorship was apparent throughout the book and finally prevailed in 
the end when his main character rebelled against the practice of 
burning books.
 Among the many forms of protests are pickets, strikes, public 
speeches and rallies. Recently in New Jersey, more than a thousand 
community activists rallied to draft a "human" budget that puts the 
needs of the poor and handicapped as a top priority. Rallies are an 
effective means for people to use their freedoms effectively to bring 
about change from the government.
 Freedom of speech is constantly being challenged as is 
evidenced in a recent court case where a Gloucester County school 
district censored reviews of two R-rated movies from a school 
newspaper. Superior Court Judge, Robert E. Francis ruled that the 
student's rights were violated under the state Constitution. I feel 
this is a major break through for students' rights because it limits 
editorial control of school newspapers by educators and allows 
students to print what they feel is important.
 A newly proposed bill (A-557) would prevent school officials 
from controlling the content of student publications. Critics of the 
bill feel that "student journalists may be too young to understand the 
responsibilities that come with free speech." This is a valid point; 
however, it would provide an excellent opportunity for them to learn 
about their First Amendment rights that guarantees free speech and 
freedom of the press.
 In his commencement address to Monmouth College graduates, 
Professor Alan Dershowitz of Harvard Law School defended the broad 
right to free speech. He stated, "My message to you graduates is to 
assert your rights, to use them responsibly and boldly, to oppose 
racism, to oppose sexism, to oppose homophobia and bigotry of all 
kinds and to do so within the spirit of the First Amendment, not by 
creating an exception to it." I agree that one should feel free to 
speak openly as long as it does not directly or indirectly lead to the 
harm of others.
 One of the more controversial issues was the recent 2 Live 
Crew incident involving obscenity in rap music. Their record, "As 
Nasty as They Wanna Be," was ruled obscene in federal court. They 
were acquitted of the charges and quickly became a free speech martyr. 
 Although many stores pulled the album, over two million copies sold 
as a result of the incident. I feel that in this case the principles 
of free speech have been abused because young children can purchase 
and listen to this obscene music.
 The American flag, symbol of our country's history and 
patriotism, has also become a topic of controversy. The controversy 
was over the right to burn the flag without punishment. Supreme Court 
 Justice William Brennan offered the response that "if there is a 
bedrock principle underlying the First Amendment, it is that the 
Government may not prohibit the expression of an idea simply because 
society finds the idea itself offensive or disagreeable." Burning the 
flag is considered a form of symbolic speech and therefore is 
protected under the First Amendment. As in the 2 Live Crew case, I 
feel that we are protecting the wrong people in this case. The 
minority is given precedence at the sacrifice of the majority.
 The book, American Voices, is a collection of essays on the 
freedom of speech and censorship. I chose to put this collection of 
essays into my book because they represent the strong central theme of 
freedom of expression as the cornerstone of American government, 
culture and life. Each essay strongly defends a case for free 
commercial speech. Each was generally in favor of fewer limitations 
on freedom of expression.
 The American voice on freedom has been shaped throughout the 
course of history by the initial democratic notions of the immigrants 
to the same desire for greater freedom that we have today. The 
freedom of speech has constantly been challenged and will continue to 
be challenged in the future. It is important that we learn from the 
precedented cases of the past of our constitutionally protected rights 
so that in the future authority will not violate our freedoms or 
oppress our liberty. 
 Ever since colonial times, the protection of personal freedoms 
in the United States has been significantly important. Even in the 
early stages of American history there was an urge to put legally 
protected freedoms into written government documents. The result was 
the drafting of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, the Bill 
of Rights, by James Madison. The applications of the personal 
freedoms described in the Bill of Rights, particularly the freedom of 
speech, have been challenged repeatedly in American courts of law and 
elsewhere. These incidents and challenges of authority reflect the 
defensive American attitude toward the ever important freedom of 
expression and the growing significance of personal rights throughout 
American history.
 In Colonial America, members of diverse nationalities had 
opposing views on government, religion, and other subjects of 
interest. Serious confrontations were prevented because of the vast 
lands that separated groups of varying opinions. A person could 
easily settle in with other like believers and be untouched by the 
prejudices and oppression of others. For this reason, Unitarians 
avoided Anglican or Puritan communities. Quakers and Anabaptists were 
confined to Pennsylvania and Rhode Island while Catholics were mainly 
concentrated in Maryland. As the United States grew larger and 
larger, these diverse groups were forced to live together. This may 
have caused individual liberties to be violated because of the 
distrust and hostile feelings between ethnic and religious groups.
 Most of the initial assemblies among the colonies considered 
themselves immune from criticism. They actually issued warrants of 
arrest, interrogated, fined, and imprisoned anyone accused of libeling 
the assembly as a whole or any of its members. Many people were 
tracked down for writing or speaking works of offense.
 The first assembly to meet in America, the Virginia House of 
Burgesses, stripped Captain Henry Spellman of his rank when he was 
found guilty of "treasonable words." Even in the most tolerant 
colonies, printing was strictly regulated. The press of William 
Bradford was seized by the government when he printed up a copy of the 
colony's charter. He was charged with seditious libel and spent more 
than a year in prison.
 A more famous incident was the trial of John Peter Zenger 
which established the principle of a free press. In his newspaper he 
published satirical ballads regarding William Cosby, the unpopular 
governor, and his council. His media was described "as having in them 
many things tending to raise seditions and tumults among the people of 
this province, and to fill their minds with a contempt for his 
majesty's government." The grand jury did not indict Zenger and the 
General Assembly refused to take action. The defendant was acquitted 
on the basis that in cases of libel the jury should judge both law and 
the facts.
 James Alexander was the first colonial writer to develop a 
philosophy on the freedom of speech. He founded the American 
Philosophical Society and masterminded the Zenger defense. 
Alexander's chief conviction was "Freedom of speech is a principal 
pillar in a free government: when this support is taken away, the 
constitution is dissolved and tyranny is erected on its ruins."
 The original Constitution did not contain a bill of rights 
because the convention delegates felt that individual rights were in 
no danger and would be protected by the states. However, the lack of 
a bill of rights was the strongest objection to the ratification of 
the Constitution. 
 Less than a decade after the Bill of Rights had been adopted 
it met its first serious challenge. In 1798, there was a threat of 
war with France and thousands of French refugees were living in the 
United States. Many radicals supported the French cause and were 
considered "incompatible with social order." This hysteria led 
Congress to enact several alien and sedition laws. One law forbade 
the publication of false, scandalous or malicious writing against the 
government, Congress or the President. The penalty for this crime was 
a $2,000 fine and two years in prison. 
 The public was enraged at these laws. Thomas Jefferson and 
James Madison pleaded for freedom of speech and the press. The alien 
and sedition laws became a prime issue in the presidential election of 
1800. Soon after Jefferson was elected, the Sedition Act expired and 
those who had been convicted under it were immediately pardoned. 
 The next attack on the First Amendment occurred in 1835. 
President Andrew Jackson proposed a law that would prohibit the use of 
mail for "incendiary publications intended to instigate the slaves to 
insurrection." John C. Calhoun of South Carolina led a special 
committee that opposed the proposal on grounds that it conflicted with 
the First Amendment. The proposal was defeated because it was a form 
of censorship.
 The next violation of the principles contained in the First 
Amendment came on January 2, 1920. Under the direction of A. Mitchell 
Palmer, Woodrow Wilson's Attorney General, about 500 FBI agents and 
police raided 3,000 Russians and other European immigrants, looking 
for Communists to deport. The victims were arrested without warrants, 
homes were ransacked, personal property was seized, and they were 
hauled off to jail. 
 An even more vicious episode was known as "McCarthyism," an 
incident in the 1950's when Senator Joseph R. McCarthy of Wisconsin 
proclaimed that the federal government had been thoroughly infiltrated 
by Communist agents. His attacks on United States information 
libraries abroad led to the burning of some books accused of being 
Communist propaganda. Reduced congressional support caused many 
librarians to resign and the closing of libraries.
 On the morning of December 16, 1965, thirteen year old Mary 
Beth Tinker went to school in Des Moines, Iowa. She and her fifteen 
year old brother, John, had decided to wear black armbands as a 
protest to the Vietnam War. In advance to their arrival, the 
principal had decided that any student wearing an arm- band would be 
told to remove it, stating that, "The schools are no place for 
demonstrations." If the student refused, he would be suspended until 
the armband was permanently removed. On December 16, the Tinkers 
refused to remove their armbands. They were suspended and did not 
return to school until after January 1, when by a previous decision 
the protest had ended. 
 The students brought suit in federal court to confirm their 
First Amendment right to wear the black armbands. They lost in The 
Federal District Court on grounds that this type of symbolic 
expression might disturb school discipline. The United States Court 
of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit was divided equally (44) so 
the decision remained unchanged. 
 On February 24, 1969, the United States Supreme Court decided 
in the students' favor by a vote of 7 to 2. The Tinker v. Des Moines 
Independent School District decision was a landmark case for students' 
rights and liberties. Speaking for the majority of the Court, Justice 
Abe Fortas wrote, "It can hardly be argued that either students or 
teachers shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or 
expression at the schoolhouse gate."
 During the sixties and early seventies a new wave of court 
battles for First Amendment freedoms emerged. The freedom of speech 
was recognized as a vital element in a democratic society. Censorship 
and the infringement of First Amendment rights, especially among 
students and their newspapers, could not and would not be tolerated. 
American citizens took a firm stand against the government and 
authority at important times when they could have yielded to the 
oppressive violations of their rights.


"Amendments to the Constitution." Collier's Encyclopedia, 1965 ed.

Langston Hughes, The Panther and the Lash (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 
Inc., 1967), 55.

Langston Hughes, Selected Poems (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 
1981), 291-293.

Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451 (New York: Ballantine Books, 1973).

Donna Leusner, "Social Services Advocates Rally for 'Human' Touch in 
State Budget," The Star Ledger, 9 April 1991: A-3.

"Student Wins Freedom of Speech Case," Daily Record, 24 April 1991: 

Bob McHugh, "'Free Speech' Moves for School Newspapers," The Star 
Ledger, 4 May 1991: A-3.

Cathy Bugman, "Monmouth Grads Hear Top Lawyer Defend Broad Right to 
Free Speech," The Star Ledger, 27 May 1991: A-9.

David Gates, "The Importance of Being Nasty," Newsweek, 2 July 1990: 
52. Walter Isaacson, "O'er the Land of the Free," Time, 3 July 1989: 

American Voices (New York: Phillip Morris, 1987).

The First Freedom Today (Chicago: American Library, 1984), 3-7

Nat Hentoff, The First Freedom (New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1980), 


"Amendments to the Constitution." Collier's Encyclopedia. 1965 

American Voices. New York: Phillip Morris, 1987.

Bollinger, Lee. C. The Tolerant Society. New York: Oxford University 
Press, 1986.

Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. New York: Ballantine Books, 1973.

Bugman, Cathy. "Monmouth Grads Hear Top Lawyer Defend Broad Right to 
Free Speech." The Star Ledger, 7 May 1991: A-9.

First Freedom Today, The. Chicago: American Library Association, 

Gates, David. "The Importance of Being Nasty." Newsweek, 2 July 1990: 
52. Hentoff, Nat. The First Freedom. New York: Dell Publishing Co., 

Hughes, Langston. The Panther and the Lash. New York: Alfred A. 
Knopf, Inc., 1967.

Hughes, Langston. Selected Poems. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 

Isaacson, Walter. "O'er the Land of the Free." Time, 3 July 1989: 

Kalven, Harry, Jr. A Worthy Tradition. New York: Harper and Row, 

Leusner, Donna. "Social Services Advocates Rally for 'Human' Touch in 
State Budget." The Star Ledger, April 1991: A-3.

McHugh, Bob. "'Free Speech' Moves for School Newspapers." The Star 
Ledger, 4 May 1991: A-3.

"Student Wins Freedom of Speech Case." Daily Record, 24 April 1991: 



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