William Randolph Hearst
William Randolph Hearst, Sr. founded the Hearst chain of publications. He developed a style of journalism that was frequently criticized and labeled as "yellow journalism". It was sensationalistic, aroused interest, and attracted readers. Hearst was born in 1863, in San Francisco, California. His father was George Hearst, a mining magnate and United States senator. His mother was Phoebe Apperson Hearst, a philanthropist. Hearst attended Harvard University, where he served as business manager of the student comic magazine. In 1885, he was expelled from school for playing a practical on his professors. His father then gave him the San Francisco Examiner. Hearst made this newspaper a phenomenal success. Hearst began buying other papers and magazines and finally owned 25 large dailies. In 1909, he founded the International News Service to serve them. He introduced the concept of color comics, Sunday supplement, banner headlines, and editorial crusading. In 1903, he ventured into politics and represented New York in the US House of Representatives until 1904. He also tried to attain the Democratic nomination for President of the United States, but was unsuccessful. Hearst's estate at San Simeon, 175 miles south of San Francisco, was one of the most lavish private dwellings in the United States. It included 240,000 acres of land, 50 miles of ocean frontage, four castles, and a priceless art collection. The main castle and 120 acres of surrounding land became a California state park in 1958.