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Korean War


The Korean War was a war fought between South Korea and
North Korea. North Korea invaded South Korea at
approximately 4am on June 25, 1950. North Korean artillery
units opened fire on the South Korean units, 30 minutes
after this about 80,000 North Korean troops entered the
border into South Korea. At 5:30am the main attack
consisting of mainly infantry and tanks advanced along the
shortest route between the 38th parallel and Seoul, which
was the capital of South Korea. The North Koreans also
struck in the mountains of central Korea and along the east
coast. When the United States heard of this the UN
requested an emergency meeting of the UN Security Council
to discuss the situation. Once the details of the invasion
had been confirmed, and the attack was considered a breach
of the peace the UN called on the Korean Government to stop
the hostilities. But on June 27 it became clear that the
Korean Government was going to disregard the UN's request,
so the Security Council met again to discuss a new
resolution. One that the United Nations would provide or
furnish the Korean Government the necessary to repel the
armed forces and to restore international peace in the
area. After some debate the resolution was passed. The USSR
was absent from these precedings due to a protest. In the
meantime, U.S president Harry S. Truman conferred with
Acheson and decided that the USSR had directed the
invasion. On June 27, Truman, without a congressional
declaration of war, commited U.S military supplies to South
Korea and moved the U.S Seventh Fleet to Formosa Strait, it
was meant to itmidate China. But China had been preoccupied
since World War II with internal affairs plus trying to
regain Taiwan, had stayed out of the War. On July 7 the UN
Security Coucil passed a resolution requesting that all
member states wishing to assist South Korea make military
forces and assistance available to the United States, as to
designate the commander of the unified forces. By this
resolution, President Truman became the executive agent for
the UN on all matters concerning the Korean War. In the
U.S, the Joint Chiefs of Staff directed Army General
Douglas Mcarthur, the American commander in Asia, to give
his ground, air, and Naval Forces against North Korea.
Although the United States contributed most of the air and
sea power, and half of the air forces, Mcarthur controllled
the allied war effort of a total of 17 combatent nations,
including Australia, Canada, Great Britain, and turkey.
 Mcarthurs goal was to try to save the South Koreans from
the superior Soviet and Chinese trained North Koreans. He
had hoped to do this by holding off the port of Pusan at
the Southern tip of the Korean Peninsula until help
arrived. By September 12, reinforcements had greatly
increased the fighting power of the allies, and the North
Korean had spent itself. Now that all this attention was
being put on the port of Pusan it was a perfect time for a
counterstrike. Mcarthur had a long planned counterstroke
planned against the port of Inchon, on the West Coast of
Korea. For several weeks he had been diverting men to Japan
in preparation for this attack, leaving just enough men,
and material to keep up with the attack on Pusan. Inchon
with it's appaling tides and currents was the worst place
to strike, but with his great sense and skill he became
famous. The harbour was dominated by Wolmi-do, a small
island, which if it was defended could prevent the landing
and the event tactical surprise. Against strong objection
Mcarthur went ahead and was confident with his plan. He
remained convinced that the advantages of taking over were
the Inchon-Seoul area were worth the risks. On September 15
he made a daring water landing at Inchon which sucessfully
cut the North Koreans supply lines. In the following days,
the marines seized Kimpo Airport and the city of Seoul. By
October 1,1950 the North Koreans had been pushed out of
South Korea, while the UN stayed south of the 38th
parallel. But President Trumans Security Council advised
against crossing the 38th, staing that ejecting the North
Koreans out of South Korea was good enough. The Joint
Chiefs of Staff objected, they demanded that the North
Korean Army be destroyed so that no other further
occurances occur. They told Mcarthur that he to follow the
North Koreans in North Korea. Then the president adopted
arguments of his Military Advisors while keeping in mind
the insights of restraint put forth by the National
Security Council.



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