A Beginners Guide To Hacking


In the following file, all references made to the name
Unix, may also be substituted to the Xenix operating system.
Brief history: Back in the early sixties, during the
development of third generation computers at MIT, a group
of programmers studying the potential of computers,
discovered their ability of performing two or more tasks
simultaneously. Bell Labs, taking notice of this discovery,
provided funds for their developmental scientists to
investigate into this new frontier. After about 2 years of
developmental research, they produced an operating system
they called "Unix".
Sixties to Current: During this time Bell Systems installed
the Unix system to provide their computer operators with
the ability to multitask so that they could become more
productive, and efficient. One of the systems they put on
the Unix system was called "Elmos". Through Elmos many
tasks (i.e. billing,and installation records) could be done
by many people using the same mainframe.
Note: Cosmos is accessed through the Elmos system.
Current: Today, with the development of micro computers,
such multitasking can be achieved by a scaled down version
of Unix (but just as powerful). Microsoft,seeing this
development, opted to develop their own Unix like system
for the IBM line of PC/XT's. Their result they called Xenix
(pronounced zee-nicks). Both Unix and Xenix can be easily
installed on IBM PC's and offer the same functions (just 2
different vendors).
Note: Due to the many different versions of Unix (Berkley
Unix, Bell System III, and System V the most popular) many
commands following may/may not work. I have written them in
System V routines. Unix/Xenix operating systems will be
considered identical systems below.
How to tell if/if not you are on a Unix system: Unix
systems are quite common systems across the country. Their
security appears as such: Login;
(or login;) password:
When hacking on a Unix system it is best to use lowercase
because the Unix system commands are all done in lower-
Login; is a 1-8 character field. It is usually the name
(i.e. joe or fred) of the user, or initials (i.e. j.jones
or f.wilson). Hints for login names can be found trashing
the location of the dial-up (use your CN/A to find where
the computer is). 
Password: is a 1-8 character password assigned by the sysop
or chosen by the
Common default logins
login; Password:
root root,system,etc..
sys sys,system
daemon daemon
uucp uucp
tty tty
test test
unix unix
bin bin
adm adm
who who
learn learn
uuhost uuhost
nuucp nuucp
If you guess a login name and you are not asked for a
password, and have accessed to the system, then you have
what is known as a non-gifted account. If you guess a
correct login and pass- word, then you have a user account.
And, if you guess the root password, then you have a
"super-user" account. All Unix systems have the following
installed to their system: root, sys, bin, daemon, uucp, adm
Once you are in the system, you will get a prompt. Common
prompts are:
But can be just about anything the sysop or user wants it
to be.
Things to do when you are in: Some of the commands that you
may want to try
follow below:
who is on (shows who is currently logged on the system.)
write name (name is the person you wish to chat with)
To exit chat mode try ctrl-D.
EOT=End of Transfer.
ls -a (list all files in current directory.)
du -a (checks amount of memory your files use;disk usage)
cd\name (name is the name of the sub-directory you choose)
cd\ (brings your home directory to current use)
cat name (name is a filename either a program or
documentation your username
has written)
Most Unix programs are written in the C language or Pascal
since Unix is a
programmers' environment.
One of the first things done on the system is print up or
capture (in a
buffer) the file containing all user names and accounts.
This can be done by
doing the following command:
cat /etc/passwd
If you are successful you will a list of all accounts on
the system. It
should look like this:
root:hvnsdcf:0:0:root dir:/:
joe:majdnfd:1:1:Joe Cool:/bin:/bin/joe
hal::1:2:Hal Smith:/bin:/bin/hal
The "root" line tells the following info :
login name=root
hvnsdcf = encrypted password
0 = user group number
0 = user number
root dir = name of user
/ = root directory
In the Joe login, the last part "/bin/joe " tells us which
directory is his
home directory (joe) is.
In the "hal" example the login name is followed by 2
colons, that means that
there is no password needed to get in using his name.
Conclusion: I hope that this file will help other novice
Unix hackers obtain
access to the Unix/Xenix systems that they may find. There
is still wide growth
in the future of Unix, so I hope users will not abuse any
systems (Unix or any
others) that they may happen across on their journey across
the electronic
highways of America. There is much more to be learned about
the Unix system
that I have not covered. They may be found by buying a book
on the Unix System
(how I learned) or in the future I may write a part II to

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