The U.S. Penal System
Prison inmates, are some of the most "maladjusted" people in society. Most of the inmates have had too little discipline or too much, come from broken homes, and have no self-esteem. They are very insecure and are "at war with themselves as well as with society" (Szumski 20). Most inmates did not learn moral values or learn to follow everyday norms. Also, when most lawbreakers are labeled criminals they enter the phase of secondary deviance. They will admit they are criminals or believe it when they enter the phase of secondary deviance (Doob 171). Next, some believe that if we want to rehabilitate criminals we must do more than just send them to prison. For instance, we could give them a chance to acquire job skills; which will improve the chances that inmates will become productive citizens upon release. The programs must aim to change those who want to change. Those who are taught to produce useful goods and to be productive are "likely to develop the self-esteem essential to a normal, integrated personality" (Szumski 21). This kind of program would provide skills and habits and "replace the sense of hopelessness" that many inmates have (Szumski 21). Moreover, another technique used to rehabilitate criminals is counseling. There is two types of counseling in general, individual and group counseling. Individual counseling is much more costly than group counseling. The aim of group counseling is to develop positive peer pressure that will influence its members. One idea in many sociology text is that group problem-solving has definite advantages over individual problem-solving. The idea is that a wider variety of solutions can be derived by drawing from the experience of several people with different backgrounds. Also one individuals problem might have already been solved by another group member and can be suggested. Often if a peer proposes a solution it carries more weight than if the counselor were to suggest it (Bennett 20-24). Further, in sociology, one of the major theories of delinquency is differential association (Cressey 1955). This means some people learned their ways from "undesirable" people who they were forced to be in association with and that this association "warps" their thinking and social attitudes. "Group counseling, group interaction, and other kinds of group activities can provide a corrective, positive experience that might help to offset the earlier delinquent association" (Bennett 25). However, it is said that group counseling can do little to destroy the power of labeling (Bennett 26). The differential-association theory emphasizes that a person is more likely to become a criminal if the people who have the greatest influence upon them are criminals (Doob 169). Most of today's correctional institutions lack the ability and programs to rehabilitate the criminals of America. One can predict that a prisoner held for two, four, eight or ten years, then released, still with no educationling, there is disadvantages. For instance, members of the group might not be as open or show emotion because they want to appear "tough." Also the members might not express their opinions openly because the others might see it as "snitching." For the group to work it takes a dedicated counselor (Bennett 22-23). Another type of correctional center used for rehabilitation is halfway houses. Halfway houses are usually located in residential communities and are aimed to keep offenders in the community. The name comes from the fact that they are "halfway between the community and the prison" (Fox 60). The "rationale" behind halfway houses is that criminal activity originates in the community, so the community has a responsibility to try to correct it. Also, sending a person who has deviant behavior and who has been associated with criminal influences, to prison would just make the problem worse (Fox 61). "The best place for treatment is in the community; this prevents the breaking of all constructive social ties" (Fox 61). Programs in halfway houses usually involve work release or study release and group sessions for therapy and counseling. Most programs vary greatly depending on the administrator. Generally, the purpose is to "reintegrate" members back into the community. There are three systems generally used in programs and in the process: "change by compliance, client-centered change, and change by credibility in that it 'makes sense." (Fox 73). The compliance model is designed to make good work habits. The client-centered model focuses on a high understanding of the person. The credibility model emphasizes making decisions and getting back into the community. These programs are made to avoid institutions as much as possible (Fox 73). On the other hand, many inmates think the government does not want to rehabilitate criminals. The reason behind this thinking is that prisons supply thousands of jobs to the economy. Also the construction of new prisons brings millions of dollars into the economy each year and if there were no new prisons needed it would mean the loss of thousands of jobs (Szumski 24-26). Henry Abernathy and inmate in Texas said "just think what a catastrophe it would cause if all cons across the country decided never to commit another crime." Richard Cepulonis, an inmate in Massachusetts said just the title "Department of Corrections" is a "misnomer" he said "they don't correct anything." In conclusion, things need to be done to improve rehabilitation in America. Improvements in job training, counseling, and halfway houses for rehabilitation must be brought to the forefront by citizens. If we do not get involved and try to make changes, our crime problem could worsen beyond control. --- Bibliography Szumski, Bonnie. America's Prisons Opposing Viewpoints. Greenhaven Press, Inc.: 1985 Doob, Christopher. Sociology: An Introduction. Harcourt Brace & Company, United States: 1994 Bennett, Lawrence. Counseling in Correctional Environments. New York: New York, 1978 Fox, Vernon. Community-Based Corrections. Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey, 1977.